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Glossary of terms used within this website.

Snake's venom and its effects.



Glossary of terms used within this website.


Glossary:   Translation:
Abdomen   The posterior region of the body trunk of animals. In vertebrates it contains the stomach and intestines and the organs of excretion and reproduction. It is particularly well sefines in mammals, being separated from the thorax. In many arthropods, such as insects and spiders, it may be segmented. The third part of a body of an insect (cf. head and thorax).
Acanthus   A spine, or spur.
Acanthotaxy   The naming of spines on the phasmid head or body.
Aculeate, aculeatus   Pointed; armed with short sharp points.
Acute   Pointed.
Adaptation   Any change in the structure or functioning of an organism that makes it better suiter to its environment. Natural selection of inheritable adaptatins ultimately leads to the development of new species. Increasing adaptation of a species to a particular environment tends to diminish its ability to adapt to any sudden change in that environment.
Adult   The final (mature) developmental stage an insect, during which reproduction occurs, and winged species develop their wings.
Adhesive   The substance by which egg of the phasmid or any other insects is gluid to a surface.
Adspersus   marked with closely crowded small spots.
Aedeagus   In the male insect, the terminal part of phallus (copulatory organ).
Agar   An extract of certain species of red sewweeds that is used as a gelling agent in microbiological culture media, foodstuffs, medicines, and cosmetic creams and jellies. Nutrient agar consists of a broth made from beef extract or blood that is gelled with agar and used for the cultivation of bacteria, fungi, and some algae.
Agonistic behaviour   Any form of behaviour associated with aggression, including threat, attack, appeasement, or fighting. it is often associated with defence of a territory; for example, a threat display by the defending individual is often met with an appeasement display from the intruder, thus avoiding harmful conflict.
Aggressin   A toxic substance that is secreted by certain parasitic microorganisms and inhibits the natural defence mechanisms of a host organism.
Air pollution   The release into the atmosphere of substances that cause a variety of harmful effects to the natural environment. Most air pollutants are gases that are released into the troposphere, which extends about 8 km above the surface of the earth. The burning of fossil fuels, for example in power stations, is a major source of air polution as this process produces suce gases as sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide. Released into the atmosphere, both these gases are thought to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxides and nitrogen axides, release in car exhaust fumes, are air pollutants that are responsible for the formation of aci rain; nitrogen oxides also contribute to the formation of photochemical smog.
Ala   hindwing.
Alae   hindwings.
Albus   Pure white.
Alveolar   Large hollow cellular structures on the phasmid egg capsule.
Antennae   A long whiplike jointed mobile paires appendage on the head of many arthropods, usually concerned with the senses of smell, touch, etc. In insects, millipedes, and centipedes they are the first pair of head appendages and are specialized and modified in many insects. In crustaceans they are the second pair of head appendages, the first pair (the antennules) having the sensory function, while the antennae are modified for swimming and for attachment. The shape and size differ between sexes of some insects. Often known as feelers.
Aposematic   Meaning that a prey animal is brightly coloured, in order to ward off predators (e.g. Oreophoetes peruana and Anisomorpha buprestoides).
Appendage   Any limb or other organ attached to the body via joints.
Apterous   Without wings.
Arborea   Lives in trees.
Arthropods   Animals which belong to the phylum Arthropoda.
Arthropoda   A phylum of invertebrate animals comprising over one million species - the largest in the animal kingdom. Arthropods inhabit marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats worldwide. Characteristically, they possess an outer body layer - the cuticle - that functions as a rigid protective exoskeleton: growth in thus possible only by periodic moults. The arthropos body is composed of segments usually forming distinct specialized body regions, eg. head, thorax, and abdomen. These segments may possess hardened jointed appendages, modified variously as mouthparts, limbs, wings, reproductive organs, or sense organs. The main body cavity, containing the internal organs, is a blood-filled haemocoel within which lies the heart. The origins and relationships of the various groups of arthropods remain uncertain, but they have been assigned to three subphyla or superclasses according to the basic structure of their appendages: Crustacea (shrimps, barnacles, crabs, etc.); Uniramia, including the classes Insects (insects), Chilopoda (centipedes), and Diplopoda (millipedes); and Chelicerata, including the Arachnida (spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks).
Articulation   The attachment of two bones, usually by means of a joint. The thigh bone (femur), for instance, articulates with the pelvic girdle.
Autotomy   The shedding by an animal of part of its body followed by the regeneration of the lost part. Autotomy is achived by the contraction of muscles at specialezed regions in the body. It serves as a protective mechanism if the animal in damaded of attacked (eg. tail loss in certain reptiles) and in common as a method od asexual reproduction in polychaete worms, in which both new head and tail region may be regenerated.
Auditory   Of or relating to the ear. For example, the auditory meatus is the canal leading from the pinna to the tympanum (eardrum).

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Care Sheet
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